Next Previous Table-of-Contents This complete online business function is not being replaced. The current use of mainframe terminals by trained employees will continue. The "application extension" to allow customers to view and possibly update their information via the Internet will be a subset of the complete business function. The complete business function could be ported to the Internet or an Intranet but this should be a second phase or separate project.
Discuss July Background[ edit ] In the late s, computer users and manufacturers were becoming concerned about the rising cost of programming.
At a time when new programming languages were proliferating at an ever-increasing rate, the same survey suggested that if a common business-oriented language were used, conversion would be far cheaper and faster.
Hawesa computer scientist at Burroughs Corporationcalled a meeting of representatives from academia, computer users, and manufacturers at the University of Pennsylvania to organize a formal meeting on common business languages.
The delegation impressed Charles A. Portable programs would save time, reduce costs and ease modernization. It was attended by 41 people and was chaired by Phillips. They agreed unanimously that more people should be able to program and that the new language should not be restricted by the limitations of contemporary technology.
A majority agreed that the language should make maximal use of English, be capable of change, be machine-independent and be easy to use, even at the expense of power. The short-range committee was given to September three months to produce specifications for an interim language, which would then be improved upon by the other committees.
Work began by investigating data description, statements, existing applications and user experiences. While some members thought the language had too many compromises and was the result of design by committeeothers felt it was better than the three languages examined.
Some felt the language was too complex; others, too simple. Such features included boolean expressionsformulas and table subscripts indices. They fell short of expectations: Joseph Wegstein noted that "it contains rough spots and requires some additions", and Bob Bemer later described them as a "hodgepodge".
The subcommittee was given until December to improve it. Despite being technically superior, FACT had not been created with portability in mind or through manufacturer and user consensus.
We shortened it and got rid of a lot of unnecessary notation. Sammet of Sylvania Electric Products. The sub-committee did most of the work creating the specification, leaving the short-range committee to review and modify their work before producing the finished specification.
The language's stated objectives were to allow efficient, portable programs to be easily written, to allow users to move to new systems with minimal effort and cost, and to be suitable for inexperienced programmers. COBOL is an industry language and is not the property of any company or group of companies, or of any organization or group of organizations.
Moreover, no responsibility is assumed by any contributor, or by the committee, in connection therewith. The authors and copyright holders of the copyrighted material used herein are as follows: They have specifically authorized the use of this material, in whole or in part, in the COBOL specifications.
Such authorization extends to the reproduction and use of COBOL specifications in programming manuals or similar publications. A US Navy evaluation found compilation speeds of 3—11 statements per minute. By mid, they had increased to 11— statements per minute. It was observed that increasing memory would drastically increase speed and that compilation costs varied wildly: This was then replaced by the COBOL Extended specifications inwhich introduced the sort and report writer facilities.
They described new versions in, andincluding changes such as new inter-program communication, debugging and file merging facilities as well as improved string-handling and library inclusion features.
Quotes by Dijkstra  Quotes are arranged in chronological order s . For a number of years I have been familiar with the observation that the quality of programmers is a decreasing function of the density of go to statements in the programs they produce. Designed to lay open at your side as you write COBOL programs, COBOL for Dummies Quick Reference is a simple guide for programmers already familiar with the language. This book won't teach you to write in COBOL; rather, it will help jog your memory when you forget exactly how to do something. Jun 23, · Problem with WRITE AFTER ADVANCING Support for OS/VS COBOL, VS COBOL II, COBOL for OS/ & VM and Enterprise COBOL for z/OS Previous topic • Next topic • 21 posts • Page .
It was also poor, lacking the funds to make public documents, such as minutes of meetings and change proposals, freely available. These made up 44 changes, which rendered existing statements incompatible with the new standard.
The proposed standard commonly called COBOL differed significantly from the previous one, causing concerns about incompatibility and conversion costs.
In JanuaryJoseph T. Brophy described previous conversions of their million-line code base as "non-productive" and a "complete waste of our programmer resources".
Fewer than a dozen of the responses were in favor of the proposed standard. In the same year, a National Bureau of Standards study concluded that the proposed standard would present few problems.
Sixty features were changed or deprecated and many[ quantify ] were added, such as:All WRITE statements have an added option - AFTER ADVANCING. This causes the compiler to take on the job of controlling printer spacing (line ). PAGE makes it go to the top of the next page, 1 LINE advances 1 line, etc.
May 07, · I am trying to create a PRINT file with the standard characters using RECFM=FBA in the JCL. It keeps coming out as RECFM=FBM. This also makes it use machine characters for the carriage control and screws up the printer.
Quotes by Dijkstra  Quotes are arranged in chronological order s . For a number of years I have been familiar with the observation that the quality of programmers is a decreasing function of the density of go to statements in the programs they produce.
REPORT WRITER Report writer is a feature of COBOL that allows for the generation of COBOL reports by describing the characteristics of the reports in the DATA DIVISION and then GENERATING the report from the PROCEDURE DIVISION.
All WRITE statements have an added option - AFTER ADVANCING.
This causes the compiler to take on the job of controlling printer spacing (line ). PAGE makes it go to the top of the next page, 1 LINE advances 1 line, etc. Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (née Murray; December 9, – January 1, ) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral.
One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, she was a pioneer of computer programming who invented one of the first compiler related tools. She popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to.